Monday, 30 November 2015

Threat of Cyber Attacks on Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Power Plant in India

What is a nuclear reactor?

A nuclear reactor is a system that contains and controls sustained nuclear chain reactions. Reactors are used for generating electricity, moving aircraft carriers and submarines, producing medical isotopes for imaging and cancer treatment, and for conducting research.
Fuel, made up of heavy atoms that split when they absorb neutrons, is placed into the reactor vessel (basically a large tank) along with a small neutron source. The neutrons start a chain reaction where each atom that splits releases more neutrons that cause other atoms to split. Each time an atom splits, it releases large amounts of energy in the form of heat. The heat is carried out of the reactor by coolant, which is most commonly just plain water. The coolant heats up and goes off to a turbine to spin a generator or drive shaft.Nuclear reactors are just exotic heat sources.

Main components

  • The core of the reactor contains all of the nuclear fuel and generates all of the heat. It contains low-enriched uranium (<5% U-235), control systems, and structural materials. The core can contain hundreds of thousands of individual fuel pins.
  • The coolant is the material that passes through the core, transferring the heat from the fuel to a turbine. It could be water, heavy-water, liquid sodium, helium, or something else. In the US fleet of power reactors, water is the standard.
  • The turbine transfers the heat from the coolant to electricity, just like in a fossil-fuel plant.
  • The containment is the structure that separates the reactor from the environment. These are usually dome-shaped, made of high-density, steel-reinforced concrete. Chernobyl did not have a containment to speak of.
  • Cooling towers are needed by some plants to dump the excess heat that cannot be converted to energy due to the laws of thermodynamics. These are the hyperbolic icons of nuclear energy. They emit only clean water vapor.

Animated reactor system

A nice animation of a nuclear reactor from the NRC.
The image above (reproduced from the NRC) shows a nuclear reactor heating up water and spinning a generator to produce electricity. It captures the essence of the system well. The water coming into the condenser and then going right back out would be water from a river, lake, or ocean. It goes out the cooling towers. As you can see, this water does not go near the radioactivity, which is in the reactor vessel.

Nuclear power plants in India
Power stationOperatorStateTypeUnitsTotal capacity (MW)
KaigaNPCILKarnatakaPHWR220 x 4880
KakraparNPCILGujaratPHWR220 x 2440
Madras (Kalpakkam)NPCILTamil NaduPHWR220 x 2440
NaroraNPCILUttar PradeshPHWR220 x 2440
RajasthanNPCILKota RajasthanPHWR100 x 1
200 x 1
220 x 4
160 x 2
540 x 2
KudankulamNPCILTamil NaduVVER-10001000 x 11000


 The projects under construction are
Power stationOperatorStateTypeUnitsTotal capacity (MW)Expected Commercial Operation
Madras (Kalpakkam)BhaviniTamil NaduPFBR500 x 1500Late 2015
Kakrapar Unit 3 and 4NPCILGujaratPHWR700 x 21400Unit 3: Late 2016/Early 2017, Unit 4: 2017
Rajasthan Unit 7 and 8NPCILRajasthanPHWR700 x 21400Unit 7: June 2016, Unit 8: December 2016
Kudankulam Unit 2NPCILTamil NaduVVER-10001000 x 11000By March 2016


Saturday, 28 November 2015

UPTET-2015-16 Notification Apply Online शिक्षक पात्रता परीक्षा उत्तर प्रदेश (UP-TET) 2015

Click Here आवेदन पत्र भरने हेतु महत्त्वपूर्ण दिशा निर्देश

ऑनलाइन आवेदन करने से पूर्व दिशा निर्देश ध्यान पूर्वक पढ़ लें एवं आवेदन के प्रारूप को भी ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ लें , समस्त प्रविष्टियाँ अंग्रेजी भाषा में ही मान्य होंगी

शिक्षक पात्रता परीक्षा उत्तर प्रदेश (UP-TET) 2015
1.  Click here to read Official Notification विज्ञप्ति दिनाँक 25/11/2015
2. रजिस्ट्रेशन का प्रारूप
3. तकनीकी ऑपरेशनल दिशा निर्देश
4.  सामान्य दिशा निर्देश
5.  ऑनलाइन फीस जमा करने हेतु निर्देश
5.  शासनादेश दिनांक 24/12/2014 
 शासनादेश दिनांक 25/11/2015 

Click Here आवेदन पत्र के लिए ऑनलाइन रजिस्ट्रेशन (पंजीकरण) करें

समस्त प्रविष्टियाँ अंग्रेजी भाषा में ही मान्य होंगी
अंतिम तिथि : 16/12/2015 (सायं 6 बजे तक)
Extended till 18/12/2015

Click Here ई- चालान प्रिंट करने एवं आवेदन शुल्क जमा करने हेतु 
बैंक (SBI) की वेबसाइट का लिंक

अंतिम तिथि : 17/12/2015

Extended till 21/12/2015

Click Here अपना भरा हुआ आवेदन पत्र प्रिंट करें

अंतिम तिथि : 18/12/2015 (सायं 6 बजे तक)
Extended till 23/12/2015

Click Here अपना भरा हुआ रजिस्ट्रेशन (पंजीकरण) विवरण प्रिंट करें

अंतिम तिथि : 18/12/2015 (सायं 6 बजे तक)
Extended till 23/12/2015 

यूपी सचिव परीक्षा प्राधिकारी ने शासन के पास शिक्षक पात्रता परीक्षा (टीईटी) 2015 के लिए आवेदन 25 नवंबर 2015 को जारी करने और परीक्षा दो फरवरी 2016 को कराने का प्रस्ताव भेजा है।

What is the collegium system

The collegium system of appointment of judges is popularly referred to as judges-selecting-judges.

The collegium system was created by two judgements of the Supreme Court in 1990s in which a body of senior apex court judges headed by the Chief Justice of India selected persons and recommended their names for appointment as judges.

Under the the 22-year-old court-framed collegium system of appointment and transfer of judges of high courts and the Supreme Court, the chief justice of the respective high courts and two other senior-most judges of the court comprise a collegium empowered by virtue of a 1993 judgment of the Supreme Court to identify suitable candidates, do due diligence and recommend for appointment as judges of the court.

The shortlisted candidates are scrutinized by a collegium of five senior-most judges of the apex court headed by Chief Justice of India before being cleared for appointment. The same collegium of the apex court identifies serving judges and chief justices of high courts for elevation to the Supreme Court.

There is no mention of the collegium either in the original Constitution of India or in successive amendments.

Click Here to read news reated to Collegium 

Friday, 27 November 2015

Haryana SSC(HSSC) recruitment 2015 notification 4425 Clerk posts last date to apply 6th January New date to apply online 10/05/2016-20/05/2016

Haryana Staff Selection Commission HSSC has issued a job notification for the recruitment of 4425 extended to  6126 Clerks vacancy. Job aspirants can submit their application from the official website 

Name of Post:- Clerk
Pay Scale:- Rs. 5200 – 20200+1900 Grade Pay
Last Date:- 6th January 2015
Total no. of Posts:- 4425 Posts extended to  6126
Age Limit:- The age of the candidates applying for the position of clerks should not less than 17 years and should not more than 42 years.
Qualification:- candidates applying for the position of clerks should have +2 class examination board standard / +2 class with first division / graduation or its equivalent from a recognized board / university with Hindi / Sanskrit up to matriculation standard or higher education.
Selection Procedure:- Selection of the candidates applying for the position of clerks will be on the basis of written Exam and Personal Interview depending on the number of applications received.
Age Relaxation:- The upper age limit of the candidates applying for the position of clerks is relaxable for the following specified categories to the extent indicated below.
i) By 5 years for candidates belonging to ST communities.
ii) By 5 years for candidates belonging to SC communities.
iii) By 3 years for candidates belonging to OBC communities.
Application Fee: Candidates applying for this HSSC Clerk vacancy 2015 need to pay application fee through Net banking/Echallan in any branch of SBI, SBP, Punjab National bank, IDBI, etc.
  • For General candidates (Male, Female) : Rs. 100/-
  • For General Candidates ( if Female and belongs to Haryana State) : Rs. 50/-
  • For SC/BC/SBC/ECPG (male) candidates : Rs. 25/-
  • For SC/BC/SBC/ECPG (Female) candidates : Rs. 15/-
How to apply:- Interested and eligible candidates applying for the position of clerk may apply onlinethrough official website of Haryana Staff Service commission (HSSC) from 7th December 2015 to 6th January 2015.
Important Dates to Remember :
  • Starting Date for Submission Of Online Application : 07.12.2015 10/05/2016
  • Last Date For Submission Of Online Application : 06.01.2016 20/05/2015
  • Last Date for Submission of Application Fee : 11.01.2015 25/05/2015

Thursday, 26 November 2015

UP Legislative Assembly Secretariat Recruitment 2015 Apply Online 90 Review Officer and Assistant Review Officers Vacancies

No of Vacancies: 90
Posts Name:
Review Officer: 40 posts
Assistant Review Officer: 50 posts
Essential Qualification: Applicants are need to meet the following qualifications to be eligible for applying this corresponding Uttar Pradesh Govt Jobs.
Age Limit: Applicants age should be maximum 33 years as on 25.11.2015. Age relaxation will be applicable for SC/ST/OBC category upto 5 years relaxable.
Educational Qualification: Candidates must have an completed UG Degree in any discipline , Diploma in Computer Science from the recognized board / institution.
Selection Method: The aspirants will be selected by computer based exam and interview process. Shortlisted candidates will be called for appointment to the corresponding vacancies.
Application Fee: Applicants are required to pay Rs.600 for General and OBC, Rs.300 for SC/ST category as application processing fee.
Pay Scale: Selected candidates will be get paid Rs.9300 – 34800 + Grade Pay Rs.4800 per month salary.
How to Apply: All Eligible applicants can apply through online mode of application available at before of last date for submission.
Important Dates:
Starting Date for Apply Online: 25.11.2015
Last Date for Online Application Submission: 17.12.2015

 Click Here to read Official Notification

Click Here to Apply Online